Water and fertigation management in micro irrigation

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Therefore, the yield, N uptake, WUE and NUE of sweet-waxy maize were determined not only by irrigation method, but also by N fertigation, and alternate drip irrigation increased shoot and total dry masses, nitrogen uptake, and water- and nitrogen- use efficiencies of sweet-waxy maize with nitrogen fertigation of 0. The soil texture was clay soil, with a pH of 5.

Maize plant Zea mays L. The inside of pot was sealed with a plastic sheet in the middle to separate into two even halves and prevent water exchange. Maize seeds were sown at the center of the pots. The primary roots were relatively evenly distributed in the two halves of the pot. There were three irrigation levels and five nitrogen N fertigation treatments in this study, totally 15 treatments i. The 15 pots in a row were arranged in the east-west direction, and the position of the pots was randomly shifted each week.

Three irrigation methods included conventional drip irrigation CDI, both halves of the pot simultaneously irrigated by two drippers , alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation ADI, both halves of the pot alternately irrigated by one dripper and fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation FDI, only one fixed half of the pot irrigated by one dripper. Water control started at 20 days after the sowing.

Weighing the pots in CDI and irrigating with tap water at interval of one day or two days depending on climate condition and plant growth status. Drip irrigation imitation system consisted of storage bag, plastic tube and dripper Fig. Storage bag was hanged in two meters high above soil surface, and water amount in the storage bag depended on the required water in each pot. One plastic tube had one flow—rate controller and one dripper at the end.

Each dripper was kept at flow rate of 0. Layout of drip irrigation imitation system for three drip irrigation methods.

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When topdressing via fertigation, N fertilizer was dissolved in water and mixed with the needed amount of irrigation water, applied through imitated system of drip irrigation Fig. Under CDI, urea solution was evenly supplied to the two halves of the pot every topdressing. Under ADI, urea solution was alternately supplied to the two halves of the pot in consecutive topdressing, so as to maintain the two halves of the pot evenly fertilized. Under FDI, urea solution was supplied to one fixed half of the pot every topdressing.

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Both P and K fertilizers for all treatments were used as basal fertilizer and mixed with soils evenly at the commencement of the experiment. All fertilizers were used with analytical reagents. N fertilization dates and percentages during the growing season for different N fertigation treatments. Three sprouting seeds in each pot were sown on 7 April, One plant per pot was chosen for uniformity on 26 April.

Plants were harvested on 11 July. Shoots, roots and seeds were separately harvested in each treatment. Finally the dry mass was weighed. Maize water consumption was computed using the following water balance equation in the pot During the whole experiment, there was no leakage and runoff. Maize N uptake is the product of root, or shoot, or seed N content and the corresponding dry mass. Total N uptake is the sum of root, shoot and seed N uptakes General linear model—univariate procedure from SPSS We thank to our research group members for research assistance.

FF wrote the manuscript and drew all figures. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sci Rep. Published online Dec 8. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Fusheng Li, Email: moc. Corresponding author.

Received Jun 23; Accepted Nov Associated Data Data Availability Statement The authors declare that the data in the current manuscript are available upon request. Introduction Agriculture is facing with the shortage of irrigation water, severe drought and low irrigation water use efficiency in China. Table 1 Mean dry mass accumulation and dry seed yield of sweet-waxy maize for different irrigation methods and N treatments.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 2 Mean water use of sweet-waxy maize for different irrigation methods and N treatments. Figure 2. Table 3 Mean N contents in shoots, roots and seeds of sweet-waxy maize for different irrigation methods and N treatments. Table 4 Mean N uptake of sweet-waxy maize for different irrigation methods and N treatments. Figure 3. Discussion Earlier studies showed that alternate partial root—zone irrigation APRI or alternate partial root—zone drip irrigation ADI decreases crop dry mass accumulation and raises water use efficiency WUE in comparison of conventional irrigation no alternating drying—wetting irrigation or conventional drip irrigation CDI 6 — 8 , Experimental design and implement There were three irrigation levels and five nitrogen N fertigation treatments in this study, totally 15 treatments i.

Figure 4. Table 6 N fertilization dates and percentages during the growing season for different N fertigation treatments. Measurements Dry mass accumulation and dry seed yield Shoots, roots and seeds were separately harvested in each treatment. Maize water consumption and WUE Maize water consumption was computed using the following water balance equation in the pot Data availability The authors declare that the data in the current manuscript are available upon request.

Author Contributions F. Notes Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Footnotes Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. References 1. Ran MY. Current situation and countermeasures on exploitation and utilization of regional water resources in China. Sichuan Normal Univ.

Kang SZ. Towards water and food security in China. The controlled alternative irrigation— a new approach for water saving regulation in farmland. Arid Areas. Controlled alternate partial rootzone irrigation: its physiological consequences and impact on water use efficiency. Partial root—zone drying increases WUE, N and antioxidant content in field potatoes.

Song L, et al. Effects of alternative partial root zone irrigation on peach growth, productivity, and water use efficiency. Water use and yield responses of cotton to alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation in the arid area of north-west China. Benefits of alternate partial root—zone irrigation on growth, water and nitrogen use efficiencies modified by fertilization and soil water status in maize.

Plant Soil. Huang, G. Split root fertigation enhances cucumber yield in both an open and a semi—closed greenhouse. Fertigation studies and irrigation scheduling in drip irrigation system in tomato crop Lycopersicon esculentum L. Impact of drip fertigation on productivity of arecanut Areca catechu L. Water Manage. Spatial—temporal distribution characteristics of water—nitrogen and performance evaluation for basin irrigation with conventional fertilization and fertigation methods.

Castellanos MT, et al. Nitrogen fertigation: An integrated agronomic and environmental study. Mahajan G, Singh KG. Response of greenhouse tomato to irrigation and fertigation. Development and evaluation of an automated system for fertigation control in soilless tomato production. Effects of alternate partial root—zone irrigation on yield and water use of sweet-waxy maize with fertigation.

Water and Fertigation Management in Micro Irrigation Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigati

Water and nitrate movement in drip—irrigated onion under fertigation and irrigation treatments. Yield and quality response of cucumber to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization under subsurface drip irrigation in solar greenhouse. Effects of root—divided alternative irrigation on physiological characteristics and yield of flue—cured tobacco. Effects of partial root—zone irrigation and N, K levels on dry mass accumulation, water and nutrients use of maize. Plant Nutri.

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Wei ZH, et al. Carbon isotope discrimination shows a higher water use efficiency under alternate partial root—zone irrigation of field—grown tomato. Ye YS, et al. Pandian Foreword 4 xxvii M. Sivanappan O. El-Hagarey Mohammad N. El-Nesr Hany M. Mehanna Hani A. El-Sayed Mohamed E. Mehanna M. Hussein H. Mady H.

Mehanna S. Mehanna E. Okasha M.

Introduction

Morad M. Afifi H. Hekal E. Abd-El Aaty Appendices 16 Index