Testing of body armor materials : phase III
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The present review covers the general strategies and materials used in armour systems, from felt to metals and composites, which themselves have been further extended, particularly to now include bioinspired materials and utilizing biomimetic conditions. Detailed discussions regarding the various armour materials and any issues in their performance against modern ammunition systems are outlined. The article was received on 27 Sep , accepted on 29 Nov and first published on 30 Nov If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center.
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For Librarians. RSS Feeds. Chemistry World. Education in Chemistry. Design and fabricate final prototypes based on the results of the laboratory, wind tunnel tests and field tests. Integrate CAS on-board Army projectile concepts in preparation for launch tests.
Technical innovations developed through this SBIR would also have dual use application for developing control surface actuation systems for any small flight platform in the military and civilian sectors. Gillespie, P. Weinacht, P. Akkal, E. Qi, H. Castano, A. Currently, commercially available components on the developmental guided 40mm munition with a camera system are heavy, expensive, bulky, and not sufficiently resilient to withstand the G force produced when the munition is fired.
The US munitions inventory does not currently include a camera-guided, gun-fired projectile at this point. Technological advances in the design of technologies like flex circuits and transparent electronics present the potential to solve this challenge, creating the potential to reduce the size, weight, and cost of a guided gun-fired munition with a camera.
The goal of this effort is to replace the current internal components of the hybrid 40mm guided projectile with novel internal components to provide navigation, guidance, control, sustained flight, and a video feed with the following capabilities and specifications:. Deliver a conceptual drawing with a preliminary technical data package for the proposed system.
Provide drawings and bench testing results that meet the desired requirements. Prior to demonstration, confirm 50 percent reduction weight and volume. Demonstrate set-back survival to 20, Gs. The successful miniaturization of electronic components for this SBIR project will address a wide range of private sector needs including improvements to personal electronic devices, UAVs, robotics, and medical devices.
Grzybowski, David M. Peregino, and Bradford S. Siegel, Adam C. Phillips, Michael D. Paultre, Alex. The technology could be used to improve situational awareness by increasing the field of view FOV of the optical system without the inherent increase in size required when using conventional optics. This technology will increase the fire control capabilities for weapon platforms Tanks, Artillery, and Mortars as well as individual soldiers.
It will also improve the situational awareness for those systems and for unmanned systems, including perimeter defense surveillance systems. Increasing fire control system field of view without adding the associated size conventional optics require would satisfy numerous capability gaps and user interests. When coupled with a virtual reality display system, a user can be immersed in a battlefield with omni-directional situational awareness but without the physical exposure.
Current commercial technology is limited in the ability to view spatially independent high resolution imagery in a wide field of view format. The edges of current technology images lack the fidelity that images in the center of the field of view poses. A compound eye imaging system can eliminate moving parts used in scanning imaging systems by partitioning a wide field-of-view into multiple imaging systems.
By overlapping fields of view from adjacent imaging components, equivalent pixels can be averaged to improve the sensitivity or signal to noise ratio. These equivalent pixels can also be compared to determine object location with subpixel accuracy or hyper acuity. This phenomenon compensates for lower resolution compared to a single aperture camera on a given focal plane. This topic is NOT restricted to a compound-eye imaging systems. Research, develop and experiment with methods to display virtual reality low distortion imagery to the user.
Verify through modeling, simulation and lab testing that the hemispheric image is free of distortion and aberrations. Emphasis should be placed on Size Weight and power. Real time image rendering is required. Processing power should also be a consideration, as it is possible that very large amounts of information will need to be processed in order to provide this capability. Trade-off analyses should be conducted to support design decisions. At the end of Phase I a detailed report describing the results of the analysis and a preliminary design of the concept is required.
Optimize the component hardware design for an individual weapon system where size weight and power constraints are most stringent and this technology would provide the greatest benefit. Verify component technology performance in a laboratory setting. HIS performance characteristics that will be measured include field of view, resolution, ability to zoom to an artifact of interest, ISO sensitivity, color, noise, distortion, white balance.
How the imagery will be displayed is also an important design consideration that shall be addressed during this phase. A final report for all phase II activities is also required. Refine the component design to be modular and to minimize size, weight, power and to survive the harsh conditions experienced in a military environment MIL-STD Create a partnership with industry to manufacture the technology.
The current clay in use is Roma Plastilina No. In addition, the raw materials oils, waxes, fillers, other used in creating the clay have inherent differences which are naturally occurring and are uncontrollable. No supplier can guarantee clay composition, microstructure or formulation consistency.
This argues strongly for a new material that is dedicated to the ballistic testing community, with a formulation that is consistent from batch to batch and is not subjected to modifications to satisfy the artistic community. In addition, the mechanical properties of RP 1 vary with temperature, shear history the material is thixotropic , mixedness, age, and loading rate strain rate dependence [2, 3].
Further evaluations of these properties are needed. PHASE I: Demonstrate the feasibility of material prototypes that exhibit similar deformation rates as RP 1, with a known and controlled composition, fabrication, microstructure and mechanical properties. Develop a set of small scale mechanical test to compare RP 1 and the candidate materials. Study the technical and economical feasibility of the possible ballistic backing material using RP 1 as a baseline for comparison.
Deliver a report documenting the research and development efforts along with a detailed description of the proposed ballistic backing material and its mechanical performance. The most effective material capable of simulating RP 1 mechanical response will be determined and proposed for Phase II efforts. Experimentally show that the proposed backing material does not harden over time or during high impact rates. Develop a parametric study that systematically varies the composition, microstructure and processing of the material to determine the conditions for manufacturing operations.
In addition, establish the environmental stability of the backing material: relevant variables to consider are temperature, humidity, time and toxicity. The prototype material should be less thixotropic than RP 1. If the data is readily available for RP 1, the deformation rates under dynamic impact loads must be comparable between the two materials.
Develop a fine quality control program for the raw materials and final product to ensure consistency between lots. Determine the minimum quality control requirements and the quality characteristics to be measured. Transition the material manufacturing process from a lab to mass production. Deliver a series of materials from each run of the parametric study to ATC for independent and in-house testing i. After identifying the prototype material that best fits the ARMY needs a total of lbs.
Deliver a report documenting: 1 the formulation, composition and fabrication laboratory and mass production of the ballistic backing material; 2 the experimental procedures and results that demonstrate that the new material meets the performance requirements; 3 results comparing the material behavior response between RP 1 and the proposed backing material; 4 a comprehensive quality control plan. A favorable performance evaluation will lead into Phase III applications. All research, development and prototype designs shall be documented with detailed descriptions and specifications of the composition, fabrication, microstructure and mechanical performance of the prototype materials.
PHASE III: Upon successful completion of the research and development in Phase I and Phase II, the prototype material will be fabricated and tested as a backing material for personal protective equipment testing soft armor, hard armor and helmets. After the backing material prototype has matched the Back Face Deformation BFD performance criteria , the ballistic backing material can be implemented in private testing facilities nationally and internationally and across DoD laboratories for testing various commodities. The new ballistic backing material will be used not only for military applications, but also worldwide in the ballistic testing community including law enforcement equipment testing i.
In addition, new business opportunities and jobs will be created in development and manufacturing of this material. A homogeneous backing material that can pass calibration at room temperature would greatly enhance the testing procedures being implemented for body armor quality acceptance. By eliminating the variation in clay testing, researchers may be able to more accurately provide injury relationships to the BFD measurements, which are currently being collected in testing. Giesel F. Lehowicz, Larry G. Army ret. The National Academies. Washington, DC, Hanlon E, Gillich P. KEYWORDS: Ballistic backing material, clay, gel, synthetic polymer, nano-materials, gelatin, back face deformation, rheology, thixotropic recovery, backface signature, behind armor.
Personnel operating in this environment are frequently limited by connectivity and positional data is substandard. Units are unable to remain on a constant digital network, essential to today's warfighter. Use of a whip antenna does not provide the height to clear the jungle canopy, and should the antenna be in contact with foliage there is a 20dB transmission loss due to galvanic effects.
In a non-destructive manner to the environment reducing the footprint of personnel transiting through a particular area , develop a system capable of maintaining both digital and voice communications connectivity. Desired bandwidth is MHz. Prototype can be designed to operate at the lower end of this spectrum to demonstrate capability, with subsequent modifications to utilize remaining bandwidth. Environmental differentiation and topography in jungle environments make continuous communication while on-the-move, extremely difficult.
System capability should focus initially on providing the pathway to establishing and maintaining communications while stationary under a deep canopy jungle and the capability of providing continuous connectivity with existing interface manportable radio systems. System capability should focus on:. Expanding on the power usage requirement, if utilizing the exiting communication system in a testing environment, the system must work for four hours continuously as a threshold and eight hours as the objective.
Although the first three references for communication through the jungle mass are dated and focused on the 's and 70's during the Vietnam conflict, they are still relevant today. Bandwidth limitations with present state-of-the-art Type-1 HF radios are no more than bps. Reference 3 highlights the efforts in utilizing old growth trees and particular tree specimens to boost communication ranges.
As identified in the report, communications were enhanced in certain situations with coiled tree conductors. This pathway may present a possible solution to the communication pathway issue utilizing latest technology. Reference 4 is an effort by the U. Navy to utilitize trees as antennas and has potential application if it could be modified for a tactical environment. PHASE I: Perform a feasibility study in support of the development of a pathway to enhance communications through deep canopy jungle mass.
Evaluate innovative technologies which may be used to build, integrate the system and leverage any existing technologies. Perform trade-off analysis to determine the best approach and develop a preliminary proof-of-concept design for the system. Generate a report identifying feasibility, to include design of a materiel solution. Demonstrate the system technology and characterize performance. The system could be marketed for civilian use in deep forests and jungles by hikers, surveyors, and exploration geologists.
Hikers in deep forested and jungle areas with high canopies must maintain situational awareness to avoid being lost; present method is to use map imprecise and compass where if not proficient can lead to travelling in circles. Surveyors must get an exact location, to include height above sea level, to properly map topographic contours and features to produce accurate maps.
Exploration geologists in jungle environments collect soil samples which are tagged with their corresponding precise location linking the assay to actual geographic charts. This is prevalent in mineral-rich areas where a geologist will follow a creek and collect samples under thick jungle canopy, unable to precisely geo-tag the samples.
OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive study on a selected structural system of semi-permanent military construction that mainly utilizes indigenous construction materials and techniques that can be adapted to standard military designs and remains suitable for several climate zones, including arid and tropical. Adaptable military austere design is needed to help reduce reliance on convoy supply lines and increase the quality of immediate housing. It must be based on locally available or indigenous construction materials and techniques suited to the environment, and it should be adaptable to multiple climate regions.
It must meet material standards required for seismic stability and impact resistance for security standards. The design and methods of construction must facilitate construction for either soldiers or local nationals. The material needed for construction must also require minimal environmental disposal requirements. The design must be reconfigurable for multiple uses while requiring either less water for compound mixtures or lower quality of water for mixtures.
Proposals submitted for this topic shall identify indigenous a common construction material and what it takes to bring it from its natural state to be utilized for construction. Unique methods of construction and configurations shall be addressed for a model of a housing unit of about 16x32 ft. Some examples of construction materials are the use of gabion basket for construction where indigenous soil can be used as filler, compressive earthen block, mortarless block, adobe, or soil cement blocks.
Results are aimed for innovative, creative, and advantageous housing units for the military by using indigenous construction materials. PHASE I: Complete proof-of-concept for a select innovative semi-permanent construction type that can be feasibly built in an austere environment using indigenous resources in regions of interest for US military contingency bases e.
While the selected structural system is simple, it will be expected to compete as rated for numerous factors such as safety, force protection, durability of material, constructability, usage of energy and water, sanitation, economy, quality of life, scalability, and sustainability. In this phase, characterization of indigenous material shall be addressed, initial design shall be proposed, and rapid method of construction shall be identified.
PHASE II: Develop specific algorithms for analyzing and integrating design criteria, which includes design characteristics, building performance ranges, and preferential use of local construction techniques. The use of case material from different climatic zones will enable the development of a generalizable approach, which retains the ability to tailor criteria to specific regions.
Use the design criteria to focus the development of metrics for calculating costs of materials, transportation of materials, construction labor costs, and energy consumption. The selected type of housing should have high structural performance and desirable living features.
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The successful completion of the work will have substantial economic and mission-readiness impacts for the U. Phase II results are expected to be incorporated into policies and military standards. While small businesses are expected to commercialize their research results for economic benefits, focusing on adapting indigenous soil resources for austere environment areas with limited traditional construction materials.
This provides steps towards the inclusion of indigenous construction materials and a system for assessing the feasibility of using indigenous construction materials and practices into the UFC, JCMS, and AFCS. The final product shall be a complete design of sustainable housing unit of desirable design criteria that can be constructed by soldiers or local contractors within reasonable time and cost. ATP Holm, Knut B. Tests of Hesco shelters November Leading Edge Group, Inc. G NMAC. Construction Industries Division of the Regulation and Licensing. Group, Inc.
Southwest Research Institute. May The Phase I version camera less lens should be no larger than 8 x 11 x 13 cm, consume no more than 1. It should accept separate standard Nikon F-mount lenses without modification. The feasibility of the proposed approach or potential approaches should be determined through testing under simple indoor normal lighting and outdoor under ambient skylight out to the horizon up to 4 km. The results will be demonstrated to government personnel and documented in a delivered final report comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the tested solution s on the optical resolution, 3-D spatial resolution, processing speed, system portability, and usability of the resulting displayed image product.
The Phase II version of the camera, without primary lens, should be no larger than 7 x 10 x 11 cm, consume no more than 1. Belvoir, Virginia. Vol 19 9 OBJECTIVE: The objective of this solicitation is to develop a process whereby vitreous-enamel can be applied to reinforcing materials for use in concrete or other binders. At present there is not a commercial method to coat these fibers with an enamel layer and then a reactive mixture. Use of porcelain coated fibers in blast panels would improve the ductility by a factor of about 4 based on data collected on the pullout of the porcelain-coated fibers used in concrete.
Porcelain enamel is a glass-based, inorganic coating that significantly strengthens the temperature and chemical resistance of metal substrates. Porcelain enameling can improve the mechanical and physical properties of metal substrates and provides corrosion and abrasion resistance. Development of porcelain enamel begins as a mineral blend similar to that used for producing common glass. This mixture is melted at temperatures in excess of deg. F to form a glass that is quenched to form granulated particles called frit.
The frit is combined with fine oxide pigments, electrolytes and other additives and milled to fine suspension to form enamel slip. The wet enamel slip is sprayed or flow-coated onto a metal substrate and fused to the substrate through thermal processing at about deg. During the fusion process, an inseparable bond forms between the porcelain enamel glass layer and the substrate resulting in a completely unique chemical finish that does not peel, flake or rust.
Porcelain enameling companies can offer custom enamel formulations that can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of metal substrates at the lowest cost possible. To create a vitreous reactive outer layer a reactive material, such as portland cement, is added to the uncured layer. The coated part is then cured to the appropriate temperature to produce a reinforcing material with a chemical and mechanical bond. PHASE I: In Phase I the incumbent will investigate a process or processes able to produce multiple porcelain enamel coated fibers, including fiber lengths of 6 to 50 mm, fiber diameters of 0.
The incumbent will develop one or more of the fibers to show viability of their process on a bench scale. Their process should have the ability to change the chemistry of the porcelain coating, vary the firing temperature and be able to coat a variety of fibers. The ability to add a material such as portland cement or other fine reactive material to the outer layer should be a viable option. The fiber coating should be uniform and at a thickness of approximately 0.
In addition, the fibers must exist as single fibers, whereby they do not adhere to other fibers.
Backface Deformation – What it is and What it is Not – CPG ARMOR COMPANY
In this phase the incumbent should show viability of production of a large number of coated fibers to Kg. The fibers may be different lengths and made from a variety of metals that can be porcelain enameled, including steel, stainless steel, copper, bronze or cast iron. PHASE III: The use these fibers in concrete have use in a wide variety of applications including incorporation blast panels for protection of soldiers as well as use in reinforcement schemes in repair materials for civil navigation structures.
Cologne, Germany. Hackler, M. Koenigstein and P. Ceramic Soc. Westerville, OH.
Steels: Metallurgy and Applications, Third Edition
Nguyen, and J. Martin, Sjostrom, C. Allison, R. Moser, C. Weiss Jr. Malone, S. Morefield, Nanomechanical and chemical characterization of the interface between concrete, glass-ceramic bonding enamel and reinforcing steel, Construction and Building Materials, Volume 37, December , Pages , ISSN , Feldman, and C. Patent Office. Charles Weiss. Paul Allison. Geophysical Investigations. Ideally the system would be able to resolve soil moisture content in 10cm depth intervals. Such moisture measurements are required for: modeling and detecting various targets in the top 2 meters of the subsurface; military construction, including assessment of building sites, airfields and roads; and mobility assessments, including battlefield assessment of the ability of terrain to support various mechanized operations.