Max Weber: Collected Methodological Writings
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These provisions were later used by Adolf Hitler to subvert the rest of the constitution and institute rule by decree, allowing his regime to suppress opposition and gain dictatorial powers. Weber also ran, unsuccessfully, for a parliamentary seat, as a member of the liberal German Democratic Party , which he had co-founded. In Weber's critique of the left, he complained of the leaders of the leftist Spartacus League —which was led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and controlled the city government of Berlin while Weber was campaigning for his party—"We have this [German] revolution to thank for the fact that we cannot send a single division against the Poles.
All we see is dirt, muck, dung, and horse-play—nothing else. Liebknecht belongs in the madhouse and Rosa Luxemburg in the zoological gardens. Weber believed that many countries were guilty of starting World War I, not just Germany. In making this case, Weber argued that "In the case of this war there is one, and only one power that desired it under all circumstances through its own will and, according to their political goals required: Russia.
It never crossed [my] mind that a German invasion of Belgium [in ] was nothing but an innocent act on the part of the Germans. Later that same month, in January , after Weber and Weber's party were defeated for election, Weber delivered one of his greatest academic lectures, Politics as a Vocation , which reflected on the inherent violence and dishonesty he saw among politicians—a profession in which only recently Weber was so personally active. About the nature of politicians, he concluded that, "In nine out of ten cases they are windbags puffed up with hot air about themselves.
They are not in touch with reality, and they do not feel the burden they need to shoulder; they just intoxicate themselves with romantic sensations. Frustrated with politics, Weber resumed teaching during this time, first at the University of Vienna , then, after , at the University of Munich. Many colleagues and students in Munich attacked his response to the German Revolution and some right-wing students held protests in front of his home. His widow Marianne helped prepare it for its publication in — Max Weber's bureaucratic theory or model is sometimes also known as the "rational-legal" model.
The model tries to explain bureaucracy from a rational point of view via nine main characteristics or principles; these are as follows: . Weber wrote that the modern bureaucracy in both the public and private sector relies on the following principles. These competencies are underpinned by rules, laws, or administrative regulations. Weber notes that these three aspects " In the private sector, these three aspects constitute the essence of a bureaucratic management of a private company. Merits: As Weber noted, real bureaucracy is less optimal and effective than his ideal-type model.
Each of Weber's principles can degenerate—and more so, when they are used to analyze the individual level in an organization. But, when implemented in a group setting in an organization, some form of efficiency and effectiveness can be achieved, especially with regard to better output. This is especially true when the Bureaucratic model emphasizes qualification merits , specialization of job-scope labour , hierarchy of power, rules and discipline.
Demerits: However, competencies, efficiency and effectiveness can be unclear and contradictory, especially when dealing with oversimplified matters. In a dehumanized bureaucracy, inflexible in distributing the job-scope, with every worker having to specialize from day one without rotating tasks for fear of decreasing output, tasks are often routine and can contribute to boredom.
Thus, employees can sometimes feel that they are not part of the organization's work vision and missions. Consequently, they do not have any sense of belonging in the long term.
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Furthermore, this type of organization tends to invite exploitation and underestimate the potential of the employees, as creativity of the workers is brushed aside in favour of strict adherence to rules, regulations and procedures. Weber's thinking was strongly influenced by German idealism , and particularly by neo-Kantianism , which he had been exposed to through Heinrich Rickert , his professorial colleague at the University of Freiburg. Weber was also influenced by Kantian ethics , which he nonetheless came to think of as obsolete in a modern age lacking in religious certainties.
In this last respect, the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy is evident. While Weber shares some of Marx's consternation with bureaucratic systems and maligns them as being capable of advancing their own logic to the detriment of human freedom and autonomy, Weber views conflict as perpetual and inevitable and does not host the spirit of a materially available utopia.
As a political economist and economic historian, Weber belonged to the "youngest" German historical school of economics , represented by academics such as Gustav von Schmoller and his student Werner Sombart. But, even though Weber's research interests were very much in line with that school, his views on methodology and the theory of value diverged significantly from those of other German historicists and were closer, in fact, to those of Carl Menger and the Austrian School , the traditional rivals of the historical school. New research suggests that some of Weber's theories, including his interest in the sociology of Far Eastern religion and elements of his theory of disenchantment, were actually shaped by Weber's interaction with contemporary German occult figures.
However, Weber disagreed with many of George's views and never formally joined George's occult circle. Unlike some other classical figures Comte, Durkheim Weber did not attempt, consciously, to create any specific set of rules governing social sciences in general, or sociology in particular. Sociology, for Max Weber, is " Weber was concerned with the question of objectivity and subjectivity. There is no absolutely "objective" scientific analysis of culture. All knowledge of cultural reality The principle of methodological individualism , which holds that social scientists should seek to understand collectivities such as nations, cultures, governments, churches, corporations, etc.
We know of no scientifically ascertainable ideals. To be sure, that makes our efforts more arduous than in the past, since we are expected to create our ideals from within our breast in the very age of subjectivist culture. Weber's methodology was developed in the context of a wider debate about methodology of social sciences, the Methodenstreit. Many scholars have described rationalisation and the question of individual freedom in an increasingly rational society, as the main theme of Weber's work.
By rationalisation, Weber understood first, the individual cost-benefit calculation, second, the wider bureaucratic organisation of the organisations and finally, in the more general sense as the opposite of understanding the reality through mystery and magic disenchantment. Weber began his studies of the subject in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , in which he argued that the redefinition of the connection between work and piety in Protestantism and especially in ascetic Protestant denominations , particularly Calvinism , shifted human effort towards rational efforts aimed at achieving economic gain.
Weber continued his investigation into this matter in later works, notably in his studies on bureaucracy and on the classification of legitimate authority into three types— rational-legal , traditional and charismatic —of which the rational-legal through bureaucracy is the dominant one in the modern world. What Weber depicted was not only the secularisation of Western culture , but also and especially the development of modern societies from the viewpoint of rationalisation.
The new structures of society were marked by the differentiation of the two functionally intermeshing systems that had taken shape around the organisational cores of the capitalist enterprise and the bureaucratic state apparatus. Weber understood this process as the institutionalisation of purposive-rational economic and administrative action.
To the degree that everyday life was affected by this cultural and societal rationalisation, traditional forms of life—which in the early modern period were differentiated primarily according to one's trade—were dissolved. Features of rationalisation include increasing knowledge, growing impersonality and enhanced control of social and material life. In a dystopian critique of rationalisation, Weber notes that modern society is a product of an individualistic drive of the Reformation , yet at the same time, the society created in this process is less and less welcoming of individualism.
His work on other religions was interrupted by his sudden death in , which prevented him from following Ancient Judaism with studies of early Christianity and Islam. Weber saw religion as one of the core forces in society. Other notable factors mentioned by Weber included the rationalism of scientific pursuit, merging observation with mathematics, science of scholarship and jurisprudence, rational systematisation and bureaucratisation of government administration and economic enterprise.
Weber also proposed a socioevolutionary model of religious change, showing that in general, societies have moved from magic to polytheism , then to pantheism , monotheism and finally, ethical monotheism. Weber also noted that societies having more Protestants were those with a more highly developed capitalist economy. The development of the concept of the calling quickly gave to the modern entrepreneur a fabulously clear conscience—and also industrious workers; he gave to his employees as the wages of their ascetic devotion to the calling and of co-operation in his ruthless exploitation of them through capitalism the prospect of eternal salvation.
Christian religious devotion had historically been accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs, including economic pursuit. Weber abandoned research into Protestantism because his colleague Ernst Troeltsch , a professional theologian, had begun work on the book The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches and Sects. Another reason for Weber's decision was that Troeltsch's work already achieved what he desired in that area: laying the groundwork for a comparative analysis of religion and society.
The phrase " work ethic " used in modern commentary is a derivative of the " Protestant ethic " discussed by Weber. It was adopted when the idea of the Protestant ethic was generalised to apply to the Japanese people, Jews and other non-Christians and thus lost its religious connotations. The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism was Weber's second major work on the sociology of religion.
Hans H. Gerth edited and translated this text into English, with an introduction by C. His work also questioned why capitalism did not develop in China.
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According to Weber, Confucianism and Puritanism are mutually exclusive types of rational thought , each attempting to prescribe a way of life based on religious dogma. In this work he deals with the structure of Indian society, with the orthodox doctrines of Hinduism and the heterodox doctrines of Buddhism , with modifications brought by the influence of popular religiosity and finally with the impact of religious beliefs on the secular ethic of Indian society.
Weber ended his research of society and religion in India by bringing in insights from his previous work on China to discuss similarities of the Asian belief systems. His next work, Ancient Judaism was an attempt to prove this theory. In Ancient Judaism , his fourth major work on the sociology of religion, Weber attempted to explain the factors that resulted in the early differences between Oriental and Occidental religiosity.
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Weber claimed that Judaism not only fathered Christianity and Islam, but was crucial to the rise of the modern Occidental state; Judaism's influence was as important as Hellenistic and Roman cultures. Weber's death in prevented him from following his planned analysis of Psalms , the Book of Job , Talmudic Jewry, early Christianity and Islam. Weber's magnum opus Economy and Society is a collection of his essays that he was working on at the time of his death in After his death, the final organization and editing of the book fell to his widow Marianne Weber.
The final German form published in reflected very much Marianne Weber's work and intellectual commitment. Beginning in , the German jurist Johannes Wincklemann began editing and organizing the German edition of Economy and Society based on his study of the papers that Weber left at his death. English versions of Economy and Society were published as a collected volume in as edited by Gunther Roth and Claus Wittich.
As a result of the various editions in German and English, there are differences between the organization of the different volumes. The book is typically published in a two volume set in both German and English, and is more than pages long. The theodicy of fortune and misfortune within sociology is the theory, as Weber suggested, of how "members of different social classes adopt different belief systems, or theodices, to explain their social situation".
The concept of theodicy was expanded mainly with the thought of Weber and his addition of ethical considerations to the subject of religion. There is this ethical part of religion, including, " These mean, respectively, how people understand themselves to be capable of a correct relationship with supernatural powers, and how to explain evil—or why bad things seem to happen to those who seem to be good people.
In contrast, theodicies of fortune emphasise the notion that privileges are a blessing and are deserved. Weber defines the importance of societal class within religion by examining the difference between the two theodicies and to what class structures they apply. The concept of "work ethic" is attached to the theodicy of fortune; thus, because of the Protestant "work ethic", there was a contribution of higher class outcomes and more education among Protestants.
Another example of how this belief of religious theodicy influences class, is that those of lower status, the poor, cling to deep religiousness and faith as a way to comfort themselves and provide hope for a more prosperous future, while those of higher status cling to the sacraments or actions that prove their right of possessing greater wealth.
These two theodicies can be found in the denominational segregation within the religious community. The main division can be seen between the mainline Protestant and evangelical denominations and their relation to the class into which their particular theodicy pertains. For example, mainline churches, with their upper class congregations, " They instead "advocated change intended to advance the cause of justice and fairness". In political sociology , one of Weber's most influential contributions is his " Politics as a Vocation " Politik als Beruf essay.
Therein, Weber unveils the definition of the state as that entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force.
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Weber distinguished three ideal types of political leadership alternatively referred to as three types of domination, legitimisation or authority :  . In his view, every historical relation between rulers and ruled contained such elements and they can be analysed on the basis of this tripartite distinction. The move towards a rational-legal structure of authority, utilising a bureaucratic structure, is inevitable in the end.
This ties to his broader concept of rationalisation by suggesting the inevitability of a move in this direction. Weber described many ideal types of public administration and government in his masterpiece Economy and Society His critical study of the bureaucratisation of society became one of the most enduring parts of his work. Weber listed several preconditions for the emergence of the bureaucracy:  The growth in space and population being administered, the growth in complexity of the administrative tasks being carried out and the existence of a monetary economy —these resulted in a need for a more efficient administrative system.
Weber's ideal bureaucracy is characterised by hierarchical organisation, by delineated lines of authority in a fixed area of activity, by action taken and recorded on the basis of written rules, by bureaucratic officials needing expert training, by rules being implemented neutrally and by career advancement depending on technical qualifications judged by organisations, not by individuals. The decisive reason for the advance of the bureaucratic organisation has always been its purely technical superiority over any other form of organisation.
While recognising bureaucracy as the most efficient form of organisation and even indispensable for the modern state, Weber also saw it as a threat to individual freedoms and the ongoing bureaucratisation as leading to a "polar night of icy darkness", in which increasing rationalisation of human life traps individuals in the aforementioned " iron cage " of bureaucratic, rule-based, rational control.
Weber also formulated a three-component theory of stratification , with social class, social status and political party as conceptually distinct elements. In Weber's theory, issues of honour and prestige are important. This distinction is most clearly described in Weber's essay Classes, Staende, Parties , which was first published in his book Economy and Society. All three dimensions have consequences for what Weber called " life chances " opportunities to improve one's life.
Weber scholars maintain a sharp distinction between the terms status and class, even though, in casual use, people tend to use them interchangeably. As part of his overarching effort to understand the unique development of the Western world, Weber produced a detailed general study of the city as the characteristic locus of the social and economic relations, political arrangements, and ideas that eventually came to define the West.
This resulted in a monograph, The City , which he probably compiled from research he conducted in — It was published posthumously in , and , was incorporated into the second part of his Economy and Society , as chapter XVI, "The City Non-legitimate Domination ". According to Weber, the city as a politically autonomous organisation of people living in close proximity, employed in a variety of specialised trades, and physically separated from the surrounding countryside, only fully developed in the West and to a great extent shaped its cultural evolution:.
We use references in German only if there is no adequate or equivalent text in English. Since the dictionary is primarily aimed at English-speaking readers, it has seemed natural to concentrate on the secondary literature in that language. A Weber dictionary in German would no doubt look different, both in terms of entries and in terms of the secondary literature referred to.
As far as we know, there is no Max Weber dictionary in German.
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We highly recommend it to those of our readers who know German. In choosing the secondary literature in our dictionary, we have tried to be selective and not to overload the entries. The secondary literature is often referred to in abbreviated form in the text of the entries. For the full details of some item, the reader is referred to the reference list at the end of the dictionary. It is this type of entry that we have designated as key words in the subtitle to this dictionary.
As with all thinkers, Weber is finally what his readers make of him. If he is used well, in concrete research as well as in theoretical analyses, this second edition of the dictionary will soon be outdated; and that is what we are hoping for. If not, it will retain its accuracy—and gather dust on some library shelf. One reason for taking this stance is that both editors of this dictionary are actively engaged in furthering the project of how to theorize among sociologists and social scientists, as opposed to teaching theory in the old-fashioned manner by simply referring students to the major works and ideas of Marx, Weber, and so on.
See, e. The Max Weber Dictionary.