Language Planning and Policy in Africa: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique and South Africa

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In December the area suffered a series of earthquakes. It is situated Tumbuka is commonly used in Karonga for both home and school. The economy of the area is based on cotton, rice and maize production along the lake and on coffee and livestock in the west. Karonga's climate is classified as tropical. The summers are much rainier than the winters in Karonga. In Karonga, the average annual temperature is Karonga is home to the Karonga Airport [8] which handles only daytime domestic flights for Air Malawi. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 4 August Malay words in Afrikaans include: [].

These words have become common in South Africa to an extent of being used in many other South African languages. Some of these words also exist in Dutch, like sambreel "parasol", [] though usage is less common and meanings can slightly differ. Some of these words also exist in Dutch, though with a more specific meaning: assegaai for example means "South-African tribal javelin" [ citation needed ] and karos means "South-African tribal blanket of animal hides".

Loanwords from Bantu languages in Afrikaans include the names of indigenous birds, such as mahem and sakaboela , and indigenous plants, such as maroela and tamboekie gras. The revoking of the Edict of Nantes on the 22nd of October was a milestone in the history of South Africa , for it marked the beginning of the great Huguenot exodus from France.

It is estimated that between , and , Protestants left France between and ; out of these, according to Louvois , , had received military training. A measure of the calibre of these immigrants and of their acceptance by host countries in particular South Africa is given by H. Morton in his book: In search of South Africa London, The Huguenots were responsible for a great linguistic contribution to Afrikaans, particularly in terms of military terminology as many of them fought on the battlefields during the wars of the Great Trek.

There are many parallels between the Dutch orthography conventions and those used for Afrikaans.

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There are 26 letters. In Afrikaans, many consonants are dropped from the earlier Dutch spelling. For example, slechts 'only' in Dutch becomes slegs in Afrikaans. Another difference is the indefinite article, 'n in Afrikaans and een in Dutch. The diminutive suffix in Afrikaans is -tjie , whereas in Dutch it is -tje , hence a "bit" is bie tjie in Afrikaans and bee tje in Dutch. The letters c , q , x , and z occur almost exclusively in borrowings from French, English, Greek and Latin.

This is usually because words that had c and ch in the original Dutch are spelled with k and g , respectively, in Afrikaans. Similarly original qu and x are spelt kw and ks , respectively. For example, ekwatoriaal instead of equatoriaal , and ekskuus instead of excuus. Diacritics are ignored when alphabetising, though they are still important, even when typing the diacritic forms may be difficult.

A few short words in Afrikaans take initial apostrophes.

Language Planning and Policy in Africa: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique and South Africa

In modern Afrikaans, these words are always written in lower case except if the entire line is uppercase , and if they occur at the beginning of a sentence, the next word is capitalised. Three examples of such apostrophed words are 'k, 't, 'n. The last the indefinite article is the only apostrophed word that is common in modern written Afrikaans, since the other examples are shortened versions of other words ek and het , respectively and are rarely found outside of a poetic context.

Although there are many different dialects and accents, the transcription would be fairly standard. In the Dutch language the word Afrikaans means African, in the general sense. Consequently, Afrikaans is commonly denoted as Zuid-Afrikaans. This ambiguity also exists in Afrikaans itself and is either resolved in the context of its usage, or by using Afrikaner for an African person , and Afrika- in the adjective sense. A handful of Afrikaans words are exactly the same as in English. The following Afrikaans sentences, for example, are exactly the same in the two languages, in terms of both their meaning and spelling; only their pronunciation differs.

Psalm 23 translation: [ citation needed ]. Die Here is my Herder, ek kom niks kort nie. Hy laat my in groen weivelde rus. Hy bring my by waters waar daar vrede is. Hy gee my nuwe krag. Hy lei my op die regte paaie tot eer van Sy naam. Selfs al gaan ek deur donker dieptes, sal ek nie bang wees nie, want U is by my.

In U hande is ek veilig. Psalm 23 alternative translation: [ citation needed ]. Die Here is my Herder, niks sal my ontbreek nie. Hy verkwik my siel; Hy lei my in die spore van geregtigheid, om sy Naam ontwil. Al gaan ek ook in 'n dal van doodskaduwee, ek sal geen onheil vrees nie; want U is met my: u stok en u staf die vertroos my. Lord's Prayer Afrikaans New Living translation [ citation needed ].

Ons Vader in die hemel, laat U Naam geheilig word. Laat U koningsheerskappy spoedig kom. Laat U wil hier op aarde uitgevoer word soos in die hemel. Gee ons die porsie brood wat ons vir vandag nodig het. Bewaar ons sodat ons nie aan verleiding sal toegee nie; en bevry ons van die greep van die Bose. Want van U is die koninkryk, en die krag, en die heerlikheid, tot in ewigheid.

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Lord's Prayer Original translation : [ citation needed ]. Onse Vader wat in die hemel is, laat U Naam geheilig word; laat U koninkryk kom; laat U wil geskied op die aarde, net soos in die hemel. Gee ons vandag ons daaglikse brood; en vergeef ons ons skulde soos ons ons skuldenaars vergewe en laat ons nie in die versoeking nie maar verlos ons van die Bose Want aan U behoort die koninkryk en die krag en die heerlikheid tot in ewigheid.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. West Germanic language spoken in South Africa and Namibia. For peoples and persons from Africa, see Africans. Language family. Writing system. Latin using Afrikaans alphabet Afrikaans Braille. Signed forms. Regions shaded dark blue represent areas of concentrated Afrikaans-speaking communities. Main article: Bible translations into Afrikaans. Main article: Afrikaans grammar. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Afrikaans phonology. For grammar and spelling; see Sebba , p. For written mutual intelligibility; see Sebba , Sebba , p. Afrikaans has Afrikaans has a total of 16 million speakers; see Machan , p. About 9 million people speak Afrikaans as a second or third language; see Alant , p. L2 "Black Afrikaans" is spoken, with different degrees of fluency, by an estimated 15 million; see Stell — , p.

It has by far the largest geographical distribution; see Alant , p. Glottolog 3. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, R. Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, — [ The origin of the Afrikaner ] in Afrikaans. Cape Town: A. Leiden: Universitaire Pers Leiden. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Johannesburg: Pers van die Universiteit van die Witwatersrand. Retrieved 17 September Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. Archived PDF from the original on 13 May Statistics South Africa Superweb. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 21 August Afrikaans is rooted in seventeenth century dialects of Dutch; see Holm , p.

Afrikaans is variously described as a creole , a partially creolised language, or a deviant variety of Dutch; see Sebba , p.

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Retrieved 22 September Archived from the original on 31 August Washington, DC: University Press. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. From Khoekhoe foreignertalk via Hottentot Dutch to Afrikaans: the creation of a novel grammar. Frankfurt-am-Main: Peter Lang. Slavery in Dutch South Africa ed. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 17 March South African History Online.

South African Department of Arts and Culture. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 28 November November Retrieved 20 October Archived from the original on 10 October Retrieved 23 September Bybelgenootskap van Suid-Afrika. Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 8 August Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 January Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 3 February In Bokamba, Eyamba G.

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